Monday, May 29, 2023

Right-wing Militias

During the Spanish Civil War, both sides of the conflict fielded ideological militia units. Today, I am sharing my Right-Wing militias, in preparation for Scenario 3: The Battle of Caspe. Below, you will find photos of the Requete militias, followed by those of the Falange.

In the images below, we have the Requete militia, preparing to defend the Caspe church (based loosely off the real church in Caspe).

The Requetes began as a Catholic monarchist boy-scouts-type operation, which became militarized before the war. Politically, they were a bizarre "Carlist" faction. The movement began a century before the Spanish Civil War, by supporters of Ferdinand VII's son, Carlos V, who made a claim to the Spanish throne in 1833.

By the 1930s, they were a large and well-organized outfit, based largely in the Basque region, who wanted Spain to be even more conservative and Catholic than it already was, if you can believe that.

At the top of the church, various Requete militiamen stand around an armed priest (from Irregular miniatures). There are many reports of clergy members firing out at the crowds of workers in the opening days of the Spanish Civil War, which led in some cases to mobs attacking the churches. 1, 2, 3*.

With the priest are a Requete LMG team, from Miniarions, as well as various grenaders and a spotter/officer, which I believe was from one of Caesar Miniatures' partisans sets (Underground Resisters, or Partisans in Europe). 

The Carlists in the church plaza are also a mix of Minairons and Ceasars. 

In the church itself, I have another priest from Irregular, as well as nuns from the Partisans in Europe set.

For the next set of the photos, we have the real fascists of the Spanish Civil War - The Falange militia. I won't say too much more about them politically, but I did put them here in the graveyard, where fascists belong.

These miniatures are all plastic, mostly from the same sets of Caesars' but also some Barcelona Universal Models (BUM).

*3. Paz, Abel. Durruti in the Spanish Revolution. AK, 2007. Page 435.
-Thanks to Lee for research assistance on this blog post.

Wednesday, May 24, 2023

Why Pirates of the Golden Age?

In the early 1700s, pirates posed an existential threat to the "Triangle Trade," by which European royals and merchant elites used the labor of African slaves and poor Europeans, and the land and resources of Indigenous Americans, to create massive wealth for European empires. This international economic system involved thousands of ships and hundreds of thousands of maritime laborers. It also factored in the many wars between the European powers, when navies swelled and sovereigns granted "Letters of marque" to private naval forces, or privateers, to attack the shipping of their enemies.

One such conflict, the War of Spanish Succession, brought all of the major powers of Europe into a war over the next king of Spain. After thirteen years, the war ended in September of 1714, putting thousands of sailors out of work.

In the years following the War of Spanish Succession, over two thousand of these sailors turned pirate. They did so for a range of reasons. Most ship captains were cruel tyrants, making sailors' lives miserable on long voyages lasting months or years on end. The disparity of pay between crew and captain was staggering, when the men got paid at all. For many a weary seaman, the opportunity to exact revenge on their masters and to earn money worth their effort drew them to mutiny or join existing pirate crews.

Pirates preyed on merchant and slave ships, building their own fleets, and threatening the economic basis of the empires. As the pirates became more organized, the monarchs and merchants struggled to regain control of the shipping lanes that kept the empires afloat. According to a display at the Whydah Pirate Museum, the navies of the world managed to catch not one single pirate ship in the years 1715 and 1716, at the height of the Golden Age of Piracy. A pirate ship was finally captured in 1717 "off St. Croix, but the men managed to escape. Some were picked up by Bellamy and joined his crew."

The Caribbean Islands, close to the major shipping routes and with thousands of coves and bays to hide out in, proved to be an especially advantageous region for pirates to hunt for prize ships. Pirates set up their own ports and hideouts, and gained influence in certain larger colonial ports. Port Royal, Jamaica, was one such pirate haven until it was destroyed in an earth quake on June 7, 1692. Soon thereafter, Henry Avery established a trading relationship with the Royal British Governor of Nassau, Bahamas, in 1696, unlocking a new base of operations that would prove essential to the Golden Age of Piracy. In the ensuing years, pirates gained influence in Nassau. During the War of Spanish Succession, Spanish ships attacked the port in 1703 and again in 1706, leading to its abandonment by the British government and many of its settlers.

When the War of Spanish Succession ended, Nassau was already home to a growing network of small pirate fleets and crews. In November of 1715, Benjamin Hornigold sailed a heavily-armed ship into Nassau harbor, claiming what remained of the town and the fort there for the pirates. He helped organize the pirate crews into a loose confederacy, calling itself the Flying Gang. Two of the most powerful captains, Hornigold and the privateer Henry Jennings, figured heavily in the early self-governance of what would later be referred to as the Republic of Pirates. That Hornigold refused to attack English ships, and that Jennings was technically a privateer employed by the British crown may have bought the fledgling pirate society time to strengthen itself. Hornigold and Jennings, however, would become bitter rivals, and the society they founded would soon cast off any pretenses of loyalty to the crown, welcome pirates of all nationalities, and declare war on all governments.

The pirates of Nassau represented an alternative of the imperial order that governed a growing portion of the earth. While many pirates joined up for personal freedom or gain, they developed their own political conceptions and presented themselves as warriors against the tyrants. These pirates used direct democracy to govern themselves, their ships, and their island. They elected captains to lead them during battle, when there wasn't enough time to debate and vote. In other times, Captains were the equals of their crews.

The pirate captain with perhaps the most developed and best articulated political position was Samuel "Black Sam" Bellamy. Often called the Prince of Pirates for his charisma, kindness, and merciful treatment of captives, Sam Bellamy conceived of his crusade as a war against the crowned heads of Europe. His crew called themselves "Robin Hood's Merry Men," and they spoke of their captain as "Robin Hood of the Seas."

The Cape Cod museum for the wreck of Bellamy's flag ship, the Whydah Galley, explains how Bellamy's group,

were not only among the most successful sea rovers of the “Golden Age of Piracy,” they were also among the most egalitarian, diverse, and democratic.

The Whydah pirates were a brotherhood of poor sailors, former slaves, and political exiles who struggled against an era of institutionalized oppression, exorbitant economic disparity, and limited individual rights. Their daily lives were directly impacted by the effects of constant warfare between monarchs, colonialism, globalism, and the transatlantic slave trade. And yet, this motley crew of different cultures, beliefs, and backgrounds banded together to achieve a degree of freedom, fortune, and equality that society would have otherwise denied them. 1

Sam Bellamy, in the one speech attributed to him, also displays an understanding of the global political-economic system of which sailors like he were but a cog. Bellamy recognized his position within that system, and believed that making piratical war against the benefactors of that system was in his interests and that of his crew, other seamen and maritime laborers of the world, as well as Africans and Indigenous Americans, who were present in high numbers among his crew. According to the quote, reported in A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates (1724) by Captain Charles Johnson, when Bellamy's crew voted to burn one of the ships they had captured, Bellamy told Captain Beer, the ship's captain,

I am sorry they won't let you have your sloop again, for I scorn to do any one a mischief, when it is not to my advantage; damn the sloop, we must sink her, and she might be of use to you. Though you are a sneaking puppy, and so are all those who will submit to be governed by laws which rich men have made for their own security; for the cowardly whelps have not the courage otherwise to defend what they get by knavery; but damn ye altogether: damn them for a pack of crafty rascals, and you, who serve them, for a parcel of hen-hearted numbskulls. They vilify us, the scoundrels do, when there is only this difference, they rob the poor under the cover of law, forsooth, and we plunder the rich under the protection of our own courage. Had you not better make then one of us, than sneak after these villains for employment?

     [Beer replied that his conscience would not let him break the laws of God and man, and Bellamy continued]

You are a devilish conscience rascal! I am a free prince, and I have as much authority to make war on the whole world as he who has a hundred sail of ships at sea and an army of 100,000 men in the field; and this my conscience tells me! But there is no arguing with such snivelling puppies, who allow superiors to kick them about deck at pleasure. 2

In the quote above, Bellamy laments having been outvoted, demonstrating first-off how pirate captains only had authority during battle. Next, he scorns Captain Beer and others for living beneath the rich and following the "laws which rich men have made for their own security," illuminating a class consciousness which would have been prevalent amongst sailors and other laborers of the day.  Bellamy then juxtaposes his pirate society against the rulers of Europe, whom rob the people on a massive scale under "the cover of law," and "make war on the whole world" with their large armies and navies. That Bellamy robs and makes war he states plainly, declaring that the only difference between a "free prince" like himself and the crowned heads of Europe is that the pirate "plunders the rich under the the protection of our own courage," without covering his deeds by unjust laws or the so-called divine rights of monarchs.

Pirates like Bellamy envisioned, and fought for, a different world, where all had a voice in the decisions that effected them; all were equal, free, and expected to scorn the orders and hierarchies of would-be masters; and all took an equal share of resources won by collective labor (often but not exclusively piracy). Pirate ships were a microcosm of this world, as were free harbors such as Nassau.

Pirates of the Golden Age represented the cutting edge of the radical and egalitarian response to the creeping authoritarianism of maritime slave empires, who greedily conquered territories across the earth. The Golden Age pirates themselves drew upon a utopian vision expressed by earlier generations of pirates. Ed Simon, in the article Return to Pirate Island, discusses the impact of a mythical pirate paradise on an island just north of Madagasscar, called Liberatlia. Drawing again from Captain Charles Johnson's book, Simon describes how a Captain James Mission with his comrades established the pirate utopia and drew up their own constitution, "(i)n language that echoes John Locke and prefigures Thomas Jefferson, but far more radical than either." Captain Mission, Simon continues, "dreamt of a sea-faring polity based on a 'brotherly Love of each other' where 'none would follow the Example of Tyrants, and turn his Back upon Justice." 3 If Captain Johnson is to be believed, Mission and his followers established their new Utopia, fortifying the island with cannons and defenses, establishing farms and other means of sustaining themselves, and populating their revolutionary society by attacking slave ships and freeing and recruiting the captives. They welcomed all to live free and equal, regardless of race, nationality, or religion.

Upon disembarking, those liberated people would discover that in Libertatia “an equal Division was made of their Treasure and Cattle” so that private property was administered under a “Democratical form, where the People were themselves the Makers and Judges” so that the earth was shared as common treasury. A democracy before America, a republic before France, socialist before the Soviet Union, Libertatia was more revolutionary than all of them, her radical promises a counter-melody to colonialism and capitalism. Eventually, Libertatia collapsed because of Portuguese assault....The real impediment, however, for this democratic, anarchistic, socialistic utopia is that it probably never actually existed. Libertatia and Mission’s existence can’t be corroborated in earlier sources, even though most of Johnson’s book is an accurate account. 3

It is not fiction that pirates founded communal societies on Madagascar during this time that lasted at least until the 1730s. Libertalia, however, is considered mythical, as researchers have found no evidence for its specific existence outside of Johnson's book. 

Black Sam Bellamy, however, was also but a myth, known mostly through Johnson's book. That is, until 1984, when divers pulled a ships bell up from a wreck of the coast of Cape Cod which had written plainly upon it the words "The Whydah Gally." Whether or not Libertalia was real, the legend was well-known to many in the early 1700s, and fired the imaginations of the pirates as they set out to build a new Libertalia at Nassau.

Pirates' ideology, derived as it was from the freedom-loving and communal traditions of both European peasant and seafarers', as well as those of Indigenous Americans, was extremely popular amongst the struggling masses. This can be seen in the many sailors and runaways who joined their cause; in the countless others who traded with, aided, and abetted the pirates; and those who spread their stories and myths in Europe and across the colonies. Some historians have argued that pirate culture prefigured the Revolutionary War. 45. (Pirates even fought against the British in the War for Independence. 6) Furthermore, millions of people have remained interested in Golden Age pirates and their ideology, even after their cause was lost to the new world order of European (and later US) hegemonic control. The interest and excitement called up by the memory of the dastardly sea dogs has, if anything, only grown in the last three hundred years.

Not all pirates viewed their crusades as social revolution against the monarchs and merchants. Many were primarily concerned with a better and more lucrative means of making a living on the sea, and others were driven by their own hate and rage. Pirates like Bellamy were disgusted by the cruelty of other pirates. Observing one of Jennings' men, Charles Vane, torturing captives lead Bellamy to double-cross Jennings and join up with Hornigold. Indeed, Bellamy's hospitality toward captives was probably less common than the barbarity other pirates displayed, using fear as a weapon more powerful than the ships themselves.

Pirates often had a more complicated relationship to slavery than did Bellamy and the founders of Libertalia. Many pirate captains, for instance, would take on Africans slaves or captives headed into slavery more for reasons of convenience than for an abolitionist position, while others were outright slavers themselves.

Blackbeard, thought by many to be an alias for Edward Teach of England, exemplified the attitudes of such pirates toward slavery. According to the History Press, after they moved to Jamaica, the Teach family owned a slave plantation from 1706. Young Edward Teach Junior worked as a sailor and navy man until turning pirate in 1713.

Blackbeard freed a lot of slaves during his piracy career but he was no abolitionist. A number of ships he captured were slave ships, which tended to be larger to account for maximum ‘cargo’. Upon capture, a large proportion of slaves joined the pirates – clearly the better choice rather than life on a plantation. However, reports also account that Blackbeard and his associates also returned slaves to the mainland to be sold at auction. 7

Kevin Duffus, author of The Last Days of Black Beard the Pirate, in an opinion article for the Virginia Daily Press, writes that after Blackbeard purposely sank his flagship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, off North Carolina to deceive "all but his closest allies out of their communal treasure," he took the royal pardon in Bath, North Carolina, a colony that was in desperate need of inexpensive labor. What he did next was even more despicable.

Depositions filed by former members of Blackbeard's crew — the ones he left behind — are very detailed. When Blackbeard sailed to Bath, he had with them 60 African men. Historians have marveled at the apparent diversity of Blackbeard's crew, noting that six out of 10 of Blackbeard's pirates were black. What they don't tell you is that five months later, when Blackbeard was killed at Ocracoke, he had aboard only six Africans. What happened to the other 54?

They were the pirates' secret treasure, a labor force delivered to the impoverished plantation society of the Pamlico region, which was short on manpower and far from the slave markets at Williamsburg and Charleston...The 60 blacks who departed Beaufort Inlet with Blackbeard were most certainly treated as commodities to be bought and sold, and were used as servants.

Over six months, Blackbeard's company acquired, traded and gleaned the healthiest, fittest, strongest African men and delivered them to North Carolina's destitute settlement of Bath — the very place in colonial America that needed them the most — a "treasure" worth millions in today's dollars. 8

Duffus posits new and unique theories about Blackbeard in his book, including that he was actually Edward Beard, AKA "Black Beard," of South Carolina, rather than Edward Teach, AKA "Blackbeard," of England. Other authors support the claim that Blackbeard sold many of his Black crewmen into slavery in North Carolina, such as Colin Woodard in his great book, The Republic of Pirates: Being the True and Surprising Story of the Caribbean Pirates and the Man who Brought them Down. 

Not all of Blackbeards crewmen of color met such a fate. One of the freed slaves who remained at Teach's side until his death was Black Caesar, "who raided ships in the Florida Keys for almost a decade before joining Blackbeard aboard the Queen Anne's Revenge." 9 Black Caesar was a legendary pirate in his own right. We could only wonder what he thought of his captain's treatment of the other Black crewmen.

It is important to remember that sources on pirates come almost exclusively from court records and hostile newspaper articles, except for a few books like A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most Notorious Pyrates (1724) by Captain Charles Johnson, a pen name for an unknown author often suspected to be Daniel Defoe. Most pirates were not literate, and even if they were, they often did not live long enough to write their own accounts. What pirates were actually like, their deeds, and their beliefs are at least as much myth as history. 

Whether or not the Brethren of the Coast considered themselves to be in revolutionary opposition to the imperial system, whatever their motives, their actions of uniting poor seamen of all nations, escaped slaves, and Indigenous people to directly attack the ships of merchants and monarchs were revolutionary actions indeed.

Pirates posed an existential threat to the foundation of the European merchant-monarchy system that prefigured global capitalism. During the Golden Age of Piracy, 2,000 pirates stalked the waters of the Caribbean. They captured and looted merchant ships and slave ships, challenging all legs of the triangle trade from their base in the Caribbean and off the coast of Africa. The Golden Age pirates were defeated, they world they created on their ships and their islands was destroyed, but their example lives on to inspire us today to imagine new possibilities, and struggle for these new ways with daring and creativity.

Further Reading:

-Under the Black Flag: The Romance and Reality of Life Among the Pirates. By David Cordingly.

-The Republic of Pirates: Being the True and Surprising Story of the Caribbean Pirates and the Man Who Brought Them Down. By Colin Woodard.

-Villains of All Nations: Atlantic Pirates in the Golden Age. By Marcus Rediker.

-The Whydah: A Pirate Ship Feared, Wrecked, and Found. By Martin W. Sandler. 

Tuesday, May 23, 2023

Scratchbuilding the sloop Marianne and the Sultana Galley (Tutorial)

Folks seem interested in these cheap, easy, and fun cardboard ships I've been making. So for the next round I attempted to make a tutorial. Be forewarned, halfway through I got bored of taking photos and missed a few steps.

Here is the process I used to build a small sloop which I imagine as Sam Bellamy's Marianne. Below that, I'll add a short description of steps I took to build a slightly larger, 3-masted ship which I imagine as the Sultana, another of Bellamy's.

The tools I used:
Small awl
Pliers (mine are part of my leatherman knife)
Utility or craft knife.

Supplies and material:
Oil paint (water-based paint will lead to the cardboard dissolving over time!)
Elmer's Glue-all.
I used wooden dowels of a few various sizes for the masts and, on larger ships than the Marianne, the cannons.
I used wooden bbq skewers, thinner than the dowels, for some of the yards.

I used two types of cardboard:
Typical, thick corrugated cardboard that you find in box boxes.
Thin, smooth cardboard that comes inside wine boxes, making the grid the bottles sit within. If you look closely, one side of this cardboard is rough, but the other runs in parallel lines, making it a great choice for the hull and deck planks. Don't drink wine? Do what I did. Go buy a couple bottles of rum from your local liquor store and ask for a wine box to cary them out in.

The Marianne

The Marianne was the first ship  SamBellamy captained, the commission handed to him by Benjamin Hornigold. Bellamy had impressed Hornigold by outsmarting the latter's rival, Privateer Henry Jennings. In taking the promotion to captain, Bellamy passed over Edward Thatch, the future Blackbeard, and many other crewmen who had sailed much longer under Hornigold. Though Bellamy would soon take over command of Hornigold's fleet -- after a vote of the crew, who preferred Bellamy's war on all of the crowned heads of Europe over Hornigold's refusal to attack English ships -- Bellamy ultimately proved Hornigold's original opinion of him was correct by becoming the most successful pirate in history during his short career. At 27, Bellamy sailed off with 170 of Hornigold's men in the Marianna and the Postillon. 

Originally a French ship, the Marianne was a small sloop painted lead white at the waterline. The stern was painted blue, with trim of yellow and blue on the quarterdeck.  Under Bellamy, she was a well-armed sloop, with 8 to 10 guns and also well-used. Surviving reports describe the peeling paint and major battle damage. Unfortunately, that is all I've been able to learn about the sloop.

I began by drawing out the bottom of a water-lined hull, and then a second, slightly larger shape for the deck. Don't forget to put a hole in the center of your deck for the mast. If you attempt to do this later, after you've started putting the ship together, it may get damaged by your force.

I used a couple small pieces of cardboard as risers to hold the deck above the base, using the deck and base to measure the width of the risers. Then I added two more risers for the quarterdeck.

I glued two dowels together for the mast and boom. Note that the hole for the mast is slightly forward from center.

Next, I carefully, slowly, glued sheets of wine-box insert cardboard to the hull of the ship. If you can't hold these together with a vice or some improvised weights, use your hands. Glue-all dries pretty fast, but this is still one of the most difficult parts. I usually do this while listening to an audio book or, more realistically, watching TV.

Not shown here, but I glued the rest of the yards on to the mast while it was still detached from the hull. I also cut a window into the stern section of the riser before I glued it on.

Next, I wrapped the quarterdeck the same way that I had wrapped the hull. 

I added a simple door to the quarterdeck.

Next, I cut planks out of the wine-box insert cardboard. I laid these down over the deck horizontally. After looking closer at other model ships, I probably was supposed to do this vertically instead.

I followed a similar process with the sides of the ship.

As well as the stern.

Next, I glued the mast in place. I used rectangles of foam board, with three holes punched through it with the awl, to hold the base of the rat lines. I made a simple figurehead out of a spare miniature horse and a little bit of Miliputty. This one is a unicorn, which were common figureheads. I placed a little 1/72 pirate on the deck for scale. Now the Marianne is ready to be primed and painted.

The Sultana

After completing these early steps on the Marianne, I began  second, slightly-larger, three-masted ship, which I imagine to be the Sultana. 

The Sultana was a three-masted galley described in some sources as a miniature version of the Whydah Galley. In the time between Christmas of 1716 and New Years Day of 1717, the crew careened The Sultana at La Blanquia Island off the coast of Venezuela, where they "made" the ship into "a man-of-war." I'm still not totally sure what that means in this case other than adding more cannon.

Now, I didn't photograph the early steps, but they were pretty similar to the steps I took to start out the hull of the Marianne, except this hull was slightly larger, there are extra decks, and there are 3 holes for the 3 masts instead of the 1 on the sloop.

As you can see in the photo below, I've also cut out doors and windows for the castles holding up the upper decks.

The quarter deck sits upon an extra base piece I cut, so that it may hang farther over the back of the stern.

When I cut my strips for the sides of the hull, I made 20 square holes for the cannon. Then I cut a dowels into 12 small sections for the cannons. I glued them into the holes I had made, very carefully and slowly. It was pretty annoying to balance them in place while they dried, and required a lot of patience. I kept losing them inside the ship. When they dried, I added extra glue, to help prevent the inevitable breaking. If you are less cheap than me, and your measurements are true, you could instead cut the dowels into sections slightly longer than the width of your hull, so that one dowel becomes 2 cannons (sticking out parallel holes on both sides of the hull). This would eliminate the balancing-while gluing issue.
I added railings to the deck at the bow.

I glued on a row of port hole covers just above the waterline for the massive oars they would have used in shallow waters, galley's being unique for their ability to be powered by oars, each requiring a team.

For the figurehead, I converted a figure to attempt to recreate the "sultana" depicted in the figurehead of a later English ship by the same name. 

Finally, I spray painted both ships with my favorite dark brown primer.

Check back next time, as I paint and rig these pirate ships! 

Saturday, May 20, 2023

Scenario 3: July 24, The Battle of Caspe


-Scenario 3: July 24, The Battle of Caspe

In Caspe, a town in the east of Aragon, Captain Negrete of the Guardia Civil joined the rising, arrested the Republican government men, plus leftists and CNTstas, and set up patrols. Negrete went to Zaragoza for weapons and ammo, to arm the 200 right-wing volunteers who joined his 40 civil guards on July 22.

On July 24th, the Durruti Column left the Bruc Barricades, now renamed the Bakunin Barricades, in Pedralbles. Headed by truck through Cervera and Lleida, the excited anarchists forgot many of their supplies, soon arriving in Caspe. There, they found volunteer militia already fighting for the city, though outnumbered. The combined forces of revolution pushed to liberate Caspe. During the battle, Negrete tried to protect himself with women and children as hostages, but died for his efforts.

In this scenario, the Durruti Column, advancing along the highway in trucks and cars, reaches and fights for Caspe. A small group of militia will be present already in the town, fighting against a force of Civil Guard, and Falangist and Carlist militia. Halfway through the game, the anarchists will receive reinforcements of improvised armor and weapon supplies, arriving by highway or railway. At the same time, the nationalists will receive reinforcements consisting of an artillery group. The side that conquers the town wins.

Set up: Clear summer weather, visibility at 40”, 60” with binoculars. Arrange a town centered on a main road, with a church in the center of town surrounded by narrow streets and tightly-packed houses. A train line runs parallel to the road on the northern edge of town, with a station toward the center of the table. Farmlands surround the town.

Unit Sheets: Make unit sheets for the groups. 

Ammunition: Nationalists have 10 ammo each, with an additional 200 rounds in each of the 2 stores in (the church and a farm house.)

CNTstas begin with 8 ammo each, and receive resupply by train or truck halfway through the game,  50 points each. They will receive supplies by train only if they have already secured the rail line up to the train station.

1st Half (Rounds 1 - 10):

Nationalist orders:

Defend the perimeter of town. Capture civilians, hold them at HQ as human shields. Fall back position, the church, location of storage and Negrete’s HQ. Unit orders should be written for each sector of defense.

CNT Orders:

Capture the train station, link up with advanced militia, capture the farm

Nationalist Forces:

Civil Guard: 

-HQ: Captain, runner, priest, 4 guards, 1 75mm cannon and crew, 1 advanced spotter, 2 MG and crew. 

2 trucks.

-1st platoon: 1 officer, 19 men


-HQ: Sergeant, 4 grenadiers/molotovs

-1st platoon: 1 officer, 19 men


-HQ: Sergeant, armed priest, nuns, 4 grenades/molotov men

-1st platoon: 1 officer, 19 men

Photo above: Sectors of Caspe, with lettered sectors possible starting points for the Caspe militia at the start of Round 1.

Republican Forces

Caspe Militia:

-1 delegate, 19 militia

Durruti Column:

HQ: Durruti, 1 bearer, 1 runner, 2 x 75mm cannon and crew, 2x msg and crew, 5 dynamiters. As many non-armored vehicles as possible. 2 Tiznaos.

1st Centuria: 

-HQ: 1 delegate, 1 bearer, 1 cannon and crew, 1 mg and crew, 

-1st group: 1 delegate, 9 men

-2nd group: 1 delegate, 9 men

-3rd group: 1 delegate, 9 men

-4th group: 1 delegate, 9 men

-5th group: 1 delegate, 9 men

2nd Centuria:  

-HQ: 1 delegate, 1 bearer, 1 cannon and crew, 1 mg and crew

-1st group: 1 delegate, 9 men

-2nd group: 1 delegate, 9 men

-3rd group: 1 delegate, 9 men

-4th group: 1 delegate, 9 men

-5th group: 1 delegate, 9 men

2nd Half (Rounds 11 - 20):

Nationalist orders: 

Await arrival of reinforcements, then push to reclaim lost ground. Use Human Shields. Church is the final fallback, if lost, retreat out of town. 

CNT Orders: 

Resupply forces. Move down the flanks of Caspe to silence artillery. Besiege the church, if possible cut off escape routes. Rescue hostages.

Nationalist reinforcements:

Artillery battery:

-HQ - Captain, staff, 1 advanced spotter.

-Battery of 3 cannon and crew.

Infantry company:

-HQ: Captain, staff, a runner, 1 MG and crew. 2 trucks.

-1st platoon: 1 officer, 19 men

-2nd platoon:  1 officer, 19 men

-3rd platoon:  1 officer, 19 men

CNT reinforcements:

-200 rounds of ammunition

-2 Tiznaos

3rd Centuria:

-HQ: 1 delegate, 1 bearer, 1 cannon and crew, 1 mg and crew, 

-1st group: 1 delegate, 9 men

-2nd group: 1 delegate, 9 men

-3rd group: 1 delegate, 9 men

-4th group: 1 delegate, 9 men

-5th group: 1 delegate, 9 men

4th Centuria:

-HQ: 1 delegate, 1 bearer, 1 cannon and crew, 1 mg and crew, 

-1st group: 1 delegate, 9 men

-2nd group: 1 delegate, 9 men

-3rd group: 1 delegate, 9 men

-4th group: 1 delegate, 9 men

-5th group: 1 delegate, 9 men

5th Centuria:

-HQ: 1 delegate, 1 bearer, 1 cannon and crew, 1 mg and crew, 

-1st group: 1 delegate, 9 men

-2nd group: 1 delegate, 9 men

-3rd group: 1 delegate, 9 men

-4th group: 1 delegate, 9 men

-5th group: 1 delegate, 9 men

The Winner:

The side that controls the town after 20 turns, or who controls more of the town, wins.

Outcome: If the workers are victorious, they may move on to the next scenario, and carry over any remaining ammunition, including the captured ammo dumps of Caspe. Lastly, any and all machine guns and cannons captured in the fighting are added to the equipment list in your general supply. Check the briefing for additional expropriations to the column’s stock.